X-ray Imaging

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X-rays are among the oldest sources of Electro Magnetic radiation used for imaging. The best known use of X-rays is medical diagnostics, but they are also used extensively in industry and other areas like astronomy. X-rays for medical and industrial imaging are generated using an X-ray tube, which is a vacuum tube with a cathode and anode. The cathode is heated, causing free electrons to be released. These electrons flow at high speed to the positively charged anode. When the electrons strike a nucleus, energy is released in the form of X-ray radiation. The energy (penetrating power) of the X-rays is controlled by a voltage applied across the anode, and the number of X-rays is controlled by a current applied to the filament in the cathode. The intensity of the X-rays is modified by absorption as they pass through the patient, and the resulting energy falling on the film develops it, much in the same way that light develops photographic film.

In digital radiography, digital images are obtained by one of two methods:

  1. by digitizing X-ray films; or
  2. by having the X-rays that pass through the patient fall directly onto devices (such as a phosphor screen) that convert X-rays to light. The light signal in turn is captured by a light-sensitive digitizing system. Angiography is another major application in an area called contrast enhancement radiography. This procedure is used to obtain images (called angiograms) of blood vessels. A catheter (a small, flexible, hollow tube) is inserted, for example, into an artery or vein in the groin. The catheter is threaded into the blood vessel and guided to the area to be studied. When the catheter reaches the site under investigation, an X-ray contrast medium is injected through the catheter. This enhances contrast of the blood vessels and enables the radiologist to see any irregularities or blockages.
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